The malaria vaccine, which is only about 35% effective in preventing malaria, is being heralded as a major breakthrough in preventing a disease that can be deadly in children, especially as the mosquitoes that transmit malaria become resistant to pesticides. On the other hand, the HPV vaccine, which prevents infection with certain strains of HPV that can cause serious health problems such as cervical cancer, genital warts, and oral cancers, has triggered a lot of angst and hand-wringing. It has been criticized as a pharmaceutical boondoggle (costing about $400 for the three-dose series), an invitation to promiscuity for the tweens who receive the vaccine, or (when the vaccine is mandated), a governmental intrusion in the lives of people.
Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, while HPV is generally transmitted by sexual contact, which is part of the reason some Americans are squeamish about the HPV vaccine. Vaccines are a public health initiative, though, and American parents tend to forget this as they fret about whether a vaccine will reset their child's moral compass.
Although many parents view vaccines as an individual choice that affects only their family, a vaccine doesn't just protect one child from an infection. Most vaccines also prevent the child from transmitting an infectious disease to someone else. Others might be vulnerable to a disease because they are unvaccinated, too young to be vaccinated, have an illness that prevents them from getting a vaccination, or because (often unknown to them) they have not developed immunity to a disease after being vaccinated.
The HPV vaccine recommendation was extended to boys because they also transmit the virus, even if they are generally at less risk for developing cancer from the virus than girls are. It can be hard, though, to persuade parents to think about their neighbor's children as well as their own.